Seven Pros And Cons Of Being In Technology Industry.

While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory, in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously. Computer networking is another form of I/. I/ devices are often complex computers in their own right, with their own CPU and memory. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on the programmer's part. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. In almost all modern computers, each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte ). Each byte is able to represent 256 different numbers (28 = 256); either from 0 to 255 or −128 to +127. 57 Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of execution of some instructions to improve performance. The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer's various components; it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions, transforming them into control signals that activate other parts of the computer. Circuits, computer chips, graphic cards, sound cards, memory (RAM), motherboard, displays, power supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and "mice" input devices are all hardware. 54 The same developments that spurred the growth of laptop computers and other portable computers allowed manufacturers to integrate computing resources into cellular phones. At least seven of these later machines were delivered between 1953 and 1957, one of them to Shell labs in Amsterdam 41 In October 1947, the directors of British catering company J. Lyons & Company decided to take an active role in promoting the commercial development of computers. A stored-program computer includes by design an instruction set and can store in memory a set of instructions (a program ) that details the computation The theoretical basis for the stored-program computer was laid by Alan Turing in his 1936 paper. The U.S.-built ENIAC 33 (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first electronic programmable computer built in the US. Although the ENIAC was similar to the Colossus, it was much faster, more flexible, and it was Turing-complete Like the Colossus, a "program" on the ENIAC was defined by the states of its patch cables and switches, a far cry from the stored program electronic machines that came later. It had paper-tape input and was capable of being configured to perform a variety of boolean logical operations on its data, but it was not Turing-complete Nine Mk II Colossi were built (The Mk I was converted to a Mk II making ten machines in total). Colossus was the first electronic digital programmable computing device, and was used to break German ciphers during World War II. It was quite similar to modern machines in some respects, pioneering numerous advances such as floating point numbers Rather than the harder-to-implement decimal system (used in Charles Babbage 's earlier design), using a binary system meant that Zuse's machines were easier to build and potentially more reliable, given the technologies available at that time. 20 21 The Z3 was built with 2000 relays , implementing a 22 bit word length that operated at a clock frequency of about 5-10 Hz 22 Program code was supplied on punched film while data could be stored in 64 words of memory or supplied from the keyboard. In 1941, Zuse followed his earlier machine up with the Z3 , the world's first working electromechanical programmable , fully automatic digital computer. The Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of "computer" in the "1640s, meaning "one who calculates,"; this is an "... agent noun from compute (v.)". The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean "calculating machine" (of any type) is from 1897." The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the "modern use" of the term, to mean "programmable digital electronic computer" dates from "... 1945 under this name; in a theoretical sense from 1937, as Turing machine ". 2. Early in the Industrial Revolution , some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers and computing devices from different eras. Gaming desktop computers are best suited for computer gaming and tend to be more powerful in terms of processor speed and graphics card; these also have a great deal more RAM, too. When choosing desktop computers, factors to consider include brand; the amount of random access memory (RAM) that's available, which ranges from between less than 3 gigabytes to more than 12GB; processor brand; processor speed, which ranges from 1.5 gigahertz and less to more than 3GHz; hard drive sizes, which range from less than 100GB to 2 terabytes and higher; and operating system type. Many projects try to send working computers to developing nations so they can be re-used and will not become waste as quickly, as most people do not need to run new programs. Computers store data and the instructions as numbers, because computers can do things with numbers very quickly. Some mobile phones , automatic teller machines , microwave ovens , CD players and cars are operated by embedded computers. There are bigger computers that many people at a time can use. By the 1980s, microcontrollers became small and cheap enough to replace mechanical controls in things like washing machines The 1980s also saw home computers and personal computers With the evolution of the Internet , personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household.